Frangula Alnus Mill
Other names: glossy buckthorn, breaking buckthorn
Buckthorn is a tall deciduous shrub in the family Rhamnaceae. It is native to Europe, northernmost Africa, and western Asia, from Ireland and Great Britain north to the 68th parallel in Scandinavia, east to central Siberia and Xinjiang in western China, and south to northern Morocco, Turkey, and the Alborz and Caucasus Mountains; in the northwest of its range (Ireland, Scotland), it is rare and scattered. It is also introduced and naturalised in eastern North America.
Alder buckthorn is a non-spiny deciduous shrub, growing to 3–6 m (10–20 ft), occasionally to 7 m (23 ft) tall. It is usually multistemmed, but rarely forms a small tree with a trunk diameter of up to 20 cm (8 in). The bark is dark blackish-brown, with bright lemon-yellow inner bark exposed if cut. The shoots are dark brown, the winter buds without bud scales, protected only by the densely hairy outer leaves.
The leaves are arranged alternately on 8–15-millimetre (5⁄16–19⁄32-inch) petioles. They are ovate, 3–7 cm (1 1⁄4–2 3⁄4 in) long by 2.5–4 cm (1–1 5⁄8 in) wide (rarely to 11 cm or 4 1⁄4 in by 6 cm or 2 1⁄4 in). They have 6–10 pairs of prominently grooved and slightly downy veins and an entire margin.
The flowers are small, 3–5 mm (1⁄8–3⁄16 inch) in diameter, star-shaped with five greenish-white acute triangular petals, hermaphroditic, and insect-pollinated, flowering in May to June in clusters of two to ten in the leaf axils.
The fruit is a small black berry 6–10 mm (1⁄4–13⁄32 inch) in diameter, ripening from green through red in late summer to dark purple or black in early autumn, containing two or three pale brown 5-millimetre (3⁄16-inch) seeds. The seeds are primarily dispersed by frugivorous birds, which readily eat the fruit.
Buckthorn - dried bark
Application: as an aid in constipation, hemorrhoids, pleurisy, etc.
Method of preparation: 1 tablespoon of the herb is boiled for 5 minutes in 500 ml of water. Strain and drink in 3 equal portions the day before meals.
Packing: 30 g